Comic

Week Fourteen Copy

015: Skipping Class

Remember when I said that the bases are like puzzle pieces? Where this is where that comes into full swing. Today we are going to talk about expression that use the building blocks of the bases. Below are three examples of this in action that all come from the script. 

 

Bases are used to connect to things together, and also possess their own meanings. Once you learn what goes with what you are well on your way to learning Japanese. That is why we decided to teach you bases so early in our comic, because we wanted to maximize your exposure as early as possible.

When verbs are changed into their bases they also change meanings. This can be found below, and while this is not an expansive list is does give you a starting point. 

 

Base 1: Exclamative. Often, you will hear someone say a Base 1 verb in a sharp and/or abrupt way, typically seen in conjunction with negative forms of a verb.  For example のむ: to drink+B1 のま+ない does not drink.

Base 2: When changed into this base, the verb itself can become a noun. Used in countless forms of conjugation and connection. Often seen in compound verbs.  

Base 3: Plain form. This base is the positive present tense of all verbs, also known as dictionary form. All verbs ‘start out’ in this form, so if you’re looking up a verb in a dictionary make sure to search its plain form.  

Base 4: Command form. This is a very easily confused base. People either think it is more intense than it really is or less intense than it actually is. For the most part, Base 4 is used in giving short and curt commands. This form can be quite rude and should be used carefully – never use it with people you aren’t on familiar terms with… unless you’re purposefully intending to demean or anger the other person. Also used in conjunction with conditional aux verbs such as [Base 4 + ba] and possibility aux verbs such as [Base 4 + ru].  

Base 5: Expresses ‘let’s [verb]’. Literally, this is the way to say let’s ____!  

Base Te: This base has a couple of functions: 1.) Connecting sentences or clauses; used often to link a clause to another clause in which a reason for the previous clause is given. 2.) Base Te can also link verbs and adjectives exhaustively like と can do for nouns. 3.) Base Te is used in conjunction with iru to express ‘ing‘; a verb that is currently [verb]ing, or a current state, continual process presently occurring, or current condition.  

Base Ta: Indicates past tense. Also used with conditional verbs such as [Base Ta + ra].  

  

B2Verb+に+いく = To go verb. EX: To go shopping. 買いに行く(かう+B2=かい に(The direction particle)行く(いく)to go)

Base 2 is often seen as turning the verb into a noun. While that is not all it does, it can be seen using this function in this expression. 

 

BTE+もつ+いく/くる

Base Te is the connecting base. That mean it is often used to make compound verbs. In this case we have to hold もつ and to go いく or come くる. In this case it would mean to bring to take with you. Literally to hold and come or hold and go もっていく/もってくる. because they are connected with Base Te though they are connected. 

 

BTE+ いい  

In this case we have Base Te connecting a verb with an adjective. That is the adjective いい which means good. This means that it is alright (good) is someone does something. See if you can find this grammar point/expression in the story down below. We will talk about adjectives another day, but we wanted to make sure that we give you some context when reading everything.

 

 

ねえ – Hey 

最近(さいきん)- Recently

あまり – Not Very

遊び(B2あそぶ) – Hang Out/To Play

時間(じかん) – Time

無かった(ない+BTA) – Negative Past

よ – !

ね – Huh

お昼(ひる) – This Afternoon

一緒(いっしょ) – Together

食べ(B2たべる) – To Eat

に – Directional Particle

行かない(B1いく+ない) – To Go Negative

 

あ – Ah

でも – But

今日(きょう) – Today

お弁当(べんとう)- Lunch

持って(BTEもつ) – Hold

きた(BTAくる) – Come

の – !?

行こ(B5いく)let's go. (normally written as 行こう but is often shortened in speech.)

 

 

何(なん) – What

でも – but

好きなの(すき) – To Like (adjective)

頼んで(BTEたのむ) – To Rely

いい* – good

よ – !

俺(おれ) – I

の – Connective particle

おごり – Treat

本当に(ほんとう) – really

優しい(優しい) – Kind/Sweet

ね – isn't it

 

私(わたし) – I 

は – Topic Marker

次(つぎ) – Next

もう – Already

クラス – Class 

無い(ない) – None/Not

けど – But

に – Directional Particle

遅れる(おくれる) – To Be Late

んじゃない – Is it alright?

うん – yeah

でも – but

大丈夫(だいじょうぶ) – Alright

だ – Predicate

よ – !

と – Quotative Particle

いっしょに – Together

いる – To exist (living)

方(ほう) – Better

が – Subject Marker

いい – Good

 

Comic

Week Fourteen

014: Don't Fail

More verbs. Now that you know how to spot Ichidan, Godan and Exception verbs let's get back into conjugation. 

 

As a reminder here is the list of bases: 

Base 1: a/あ

Base 2: i/い

Base 3: u/う

Base 4: e/え

Base 5: ou *long sound おう 

 

Here are some basic examples with each verb type as they conjugate slightly differently. 

Godan Verbs: nomu – to drink

Nomu in Base 1 = noma のま

Nomu in Base 2 = nomi のみ

Nomu in Base 3 = nomu のむ

Nomu in Base 4 = nome のめ

Nomu in Base 5 = nomou のもう 

 

However there are two other bases that are kinda hard to memorize and can be kinda confusing unless you see them in from of you. We call them Base TE and Base TA. These two bases are difficult because they get all phonetical when interacting with Godan verbs.

 

With Ichidan verbs you simply remove the る and replace it with て. That easy.

Deru でる (To Leave) – Dete でて

Okiru おきる (To Awake) – Okite おきて

Neru ねる (To Sleep) – Nete ねて 

 

The next base is called Base Ta – also called Base 7. 

With Ichidan verbs you simply remove the る and replace it with た. Yep, super simple.

Deru でる (To Leave) – Deta でた

Okiru おきる (To Awake) – Okita おきた

Neru ねる (To Sleep) – Neta ねた  

 

Now the Godan verbs. Instead of just adding Te/Ta onto the end, you have to change more of the form of the word, depending on the last Hiragana symbol in the word. 

 

If the verb ends with: BU, MU, or NU = Base Te conjugates into NDE/NDA

Yobu (よぶ) Yonde (よんで/よんだ) – To Call

Nomu (のむ) Nonde (のんで/のんだ) – To Drink

Shinu (しぬ) Shinde (しんで/しんだ) – To Die 

 

If the verb ends with: U, RU, TSU = Base Te conjugates into TTE/TTA

Kau (かう) Katte (かって/かった) – To Buy

Noru (のる) Notte (のって/のった) – To Ride

Tatsu (たつ) Tatte (たって/たった)) – To Stand 

 

If the verb ends with: KU = Base Te conjugates into ITE

Kaku (かく) Kaite (かいて/かいた) – To Write 

 

If the verb ends with GU = Base Te conjugates into IDE 

Oyogu (およぐ) Oyoide (およいで/およいだ) – To Swim 

 

 

 

 

 

勉強(べんきょう)- Styudy

して(BTEする)- To Do

いる – To Exist

か – ?

 うん – ya

本当(ほんとう)- Really

か – ?

本当(ほんとう) – Really

だった(だPast)- Predicate

ば – 

一生懸命(いっしょうけんめい) – Really Hard (with all one's might)

勉強(べんきょう) – To Study

して(BTEする) – To Do

[い]る – To exist

よ – !

当たり前(あたりまえ) – You better me (This phrase has various meanings)

だ – Predicate

次(つぎ) – Next

の – Connecting Particle

テスト – Test

は – Topic Marker

絶対に(ぜったい) – Without a 

落とせない(B2おとせる+ない) – Fail (negative)

から – Because

な – Inflective [as if making a statement]

 

放課(ほうか)- End of class

後(ご) – After

ゲーセン – Game Center/Arcade

に – Directional Particle

いく – To go

けど – But

来る(くる) – To come 

行けない(B1いく+ない) – To Go (negative) 

勉強(べんきょう) – (Study)

しない(B1する+ない) – To Do (negative)

と – Quotative

いけない – Must

んだ – Indicates an explination

 まじで – No way

お前(まえ) – You (informal)

ずっと – All the time

勉強(べんきょう)

して(BTEする) – To Do

[い]る – To exist

な – Statement

うん – yeah

しない(B1する+ない) – To Verb (negative)

やばい – Really bad

んだ – Indicates Explanation

よ – !

Comic

Week Thirteen

013: Replies

More verbs. Now that you know how to spot Ichidan, Godan and Exception verbs let's get back into conjugation. 

 

As a reminder here is the list of bases: 

Base 1: a/あ

Base 2: i/い

Base 3: u/う

Base 4: e/え

Base 5: ou *long sound おう 

 

Here are some basic examples with each verb type as they conjugate slightly differently. 

Godan Verbs: nomu – to drink

Nomu in Base 1 = noma のま

Nomu in Base 2 = nomi のみ

Nomu in Base 3 = nomu のむ

Nomu in Base 4 = nome のめ

Nomu in Base 5 = nomou のもう 

 

So from here, we remember that the bases are basically the first part of two pieces that make up the form of the verb. Let's go over an example. To put verbs in the negative form we first mush change it into Base 1 and then add ない. So To Drink (のむ) become Does not drink (のまない) . That simple. Now each type of ending must aline with one of the 7 bases. However, each base has a meaning of it's own. For example, Base 5 mean's let's Verb. Or Let's Drink (のもう). While we will not go over all the meaning today try to memorize these main ones of Base 1 + ない and Base 5. This will help us understand the last two bases which is next week's topic. 

 

 

 

 

えー – huh

変な(へん) – Odd/Strange

の – !

この – This

置物(おきもの)- Porch statue (literally placed thing)

を – Object Particle

買った(かう+BTA)To Buy (Past Tense)

の – ?

 

これ – This

が – Subject Marker

返事(へんじ) – Reply

だ – Predicate

 

 今(いま)- Now

開ける(あける) – Open

か – Question Marker

いや – No

無理(むり) – Nothing we can do

よ – !

今(いま) – Now

は – Topic Marker

できそう (できる+B2+そう) – Seems Possible

に – Direction Particle

ない – Negative

わ – ! (feminine)

ねえ – Hey

ちょっと – A little

どこ – Where

か – Question Particle

一緒に(いっしょ) – Together

出掛けない(でかける+BI+ない)Go do something (Negative) 

アイス – Ice-cream

か – Question Particle

何か(なにか) – What

買い(かう+B2) – Buy/Shop (noun)

に – Direction Marker

行く(いく) – To Go

 

いい(イイ)- Good (Katakana for emphasis)

ね – Isn't it

行こう(いく+B5) – Let's Go 

Comic

Week Twelve

012: Grades

Okay back to verbs. Now that you know how to spot Ichidan, Godan and Exception verbs we are going to start into conjugation. There are 7 verb bases, each of which adjust the ending of two main types of verbs, Ichidan and Godan. We are going to start by learning the first 5 bases as they are the easiest. 

 

First off, by changing the bases you can change the meanings of any of the verbs you use. By conjugating verbs we not only change the form we also slightly change the function. Think of each of these bases like puzzle pieces. You have to have the verb in the correct form to connect it to the correct suffix.

Each one of these bases correlates to a vowel: 

Base 1: a/あ

Base 2: i/い

Base 3: u/う

Base 4: e/え

Base 5: ou *long sound おう 

 

Here are some basic examples with each verb type as they conjugate slightly differently. 

Godan Verbs: nomu – to drink

Nomu in Base 1 = noma のま

Nomu in Base 2 = nomi のみ

Nomu in Base 3 = nomu のむ

Nomu in Base 4 = nome のめ

Nomu in Base 5 = nomou  のもう 

 

Are you spotting a pattern here? 

For Godan verbs, simply shift the verb into romaji and then change the last letter of the base verb. Now one more note. You notice that we call this verb Nomu? Base 3 is called the dictionary form. It is the most basic form of a verb. When you search a verb in the dictionary or hear it without any honorifics or form changes it will be in Base 3.

 

Ichidan verbs are a little more tricky because they don’t logically follow a standard pattern like the Godan Verbs. 

Ichidan verbs: taberu – to eat

Taberu in Base 1 = tabe たべ

Taberu in Base 2 = tabe たべ

Taberu in Base 3 = taberu たべる

Taberu in Base 4 = tabero たべろ

Taberu in Base 5 = tabeyou たべよう 

 

With Ichidan verbs base 1 & 2 are the same, simply cut off the last る. 

But base 4 and 5, you add ろ & よう respectively. 

For today's test spot the Godan verb used in this chapter, and change it into all 5 forms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

おい  – Hey (Male informal)

遊び(B2 あそぶ)- To Play 

に – Direction Particle

行こう(B5 行く) – To Go

ぜ  – Male Exclamitive

 行きたい (B2 行く + Tai) – Want to Go

けど – But

行けない – (Potential Form 行く)

んだ – Indicates Explanation

なんで – Why

だ – Predicate

よ – !

なに – What

か – Question Particle

する – To Do

こと – Intangible Thing

ある – To Exist

の – ?

 勉強する(べんきょう)- To Study

しない(B1する+ない) 

んだ – Indicates Explination

といけない – Must Verb 

 

Asobu = 

B1 Asoba

B2 Asobi

B3 Abosu

B4 Asobe

B5 Asobou 

Comic

Week Eleven

011: Messages

Now that you can identify all of the different kinds of verbs, we should start applying them slowly. Keeping in mind all the time, the difference types; Godan, Ichidan, and those nasty Exception verbs. The the #1 thing to keep in mind here is that while verbs will always fall into three groups they will change forms. This is conjugation we call the Quadrant. Now we won't be going to break that down next week, with some example verbs. So don't worry we will go into the quadrant and how to conjugate all the verbs that you can possibly stomach. Until then, I have something key that we need to go over. 

In every language there are certain saying that we use that have strict and ridged uses, that sometimes seem kind of odd. Today we are going to go over a few.

 

I'm Sorry (Formal) ごめんなさい

I'm Sorry (Informal) ごめん

Excuse Me すみません

Good Night おやすみなさい

 

Goodbye in Japanese is a tricky thing. You don't want to use the wrong one. Make sure to only use さようなら if you meet it. or are being very formal.

 

Goodbye (For Good) さようなら 

See you later またね

See ya じゃあね

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 大丈夫(だいじょうぶ)- Alright

よ – !

最近(さいきん)- Recently

家(いえ)- House/Home

の – Connective

こと – Intangible Thing

が – Subject Marker

少し(すこし)- A Small Amount

大変(たいへん)- Rough or Hard

で – Short Pedicate

こそ – For Sure

最近(さいきん)- Recent

ちょっと – a Little

変(へん)- Strange

だ – Predicate

よ – !

大丈夫(だいじょうぶ)- Alright

な – Adjective marker

の – ?

大丈夫(だいじょうぶ)- Alright

心配(しんぱい)- Worry

ない – Negative

よ – !

俺(おれ)- I (informal Male)

は – Topic Marker

この – This

前(まえ)- Before

は – Topic Marker

気まずく(きまずく)- Uncomfortable

させちゃって – To unfortunately Be

ごめん – Sorry

ね – Isn't it?

 伏見稲荷(ふしみいなり) – [Place Name] 

行き(ゆき)- Bound 

列車(れっしゃ)- Train

が – Subject Marker

間もなく(まもなく)- Shortly

発車(れっしゃ)- Depart

いたします – To Go (Honorific)

 

伏見稲荷(ふしみいなり[Place Name]

駅 (えき)- Train Station